‘Lootin Putin’ is so desperate to keep Nuke Plants viable that he is now ‘playing with deadly toxic fuel mixtures’ that previously were considered ‘completely out of the question’!! REMIX FUEL – is much worse than MOX fuel as explained below.. “Russia’s Remix (regenerated mixture) fuel, which reduces the consumption of natural uranium. Remix fuel is a combination of mixed-oxide (mox) fuel and fuel with a mix of fresh and recycled uranium. So ‘Lootin Putin’ is actually taking chemically and extremely radioactive UNSTABLE NUCLEAR GARBAGE stuffing it back into an OLD reactor ONLY designed to burn UOX-enriched fuel and “firing up the plant to See What Happens? THEY HAVE NOT TESTED this fuel mix in a controlled small reactor environment. It has been run in a few reactors around the world with ‘mixed’ results and is highly unstable at reactor pressures and temperatures. This upcoming run in the Balakovo reactor IS THE FUCKIN’ TEST – LIVE AND IN COLOR! — https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/fuel-recycling/mixed-oxide-fuel-mox.aspx…
EXCERPT from Article..
“REMIX (Regenerated Mixture) fuel is produced directly from a non-separated mix of recycled uranium and plutonium from reprocessed used fuel, with a LEU (up to 17% U-235) uranium make-up comprising about 20% of the mix. This gives fuel with about 1% Pu-239 and 4% U-235 which can sustain burn-up of 50 GWd/t over four years. The spent REMIX fuel after four years is about 2% Pu-239* and 1% U-235, and following cooling and reprocessing the non-separated uranium and plutonium is recycled again after LEU addition. The wastes (fission products and minor actinides) are vitrified, as today from reprocessing, and stored for geological disposal.
* a 68% increase, compared with 104% in the MOX fuel cycle, according to Tenex.
REMIX fuel can be repeatedly recycled with 100% core load in current VVER-1000 reactors and correspondingly reprocessed many times – up to five times – so that with less than three fuel loads in circulation a reactor could run for 60 years using the same fuel, with LEU recharge.* As with MOX, the use of REMIX fuel reduces consumption of natural uranium in VVERs by about 20% at each recycle as compared with an open fuel cycle. REMIX can serve as a replacement for existing reactor fuel, but in contrast to MOX there is a higher cost for fuel fabrication due to the high activity levels – compared with UO2 fuel, the cost increment is 25-30%. The REMIX cycle can be modified from the above figures according to need.
* A VVER-1000 REMIX fuel assembly will contain only 86 kg of fresh enriched uranium instead of 433 kg. The 86 kg U enriched up to 17% requires 2426 kg of natural uranium (tails assay 0.1%) and 2981 SWU. By contrast, the production of 433 kg of uranium enriched to 5% needs 3030 kg Unat and 3566 SWU. Hence 20% saving in uranium and 17% in SWU.
REMIX is expected to give a saving in used fuel storage and disposal costs compared with once-through fuel cycle, matched by the reprocessing cost, though this is expected to reduce. Compared with the MOX cycle it has the virtue of not giving rise to any accumulation of reprocessed uranium (RepU) or allow any separated plutonium. The increasing concentrations of even isotopes of both elements is compensated by the fresh uranium top-up, presumably at increasing enrichment levels. Rosatom plans to load experimental REMIX fuel assemblies into Balakovo unit 3 in June 2016, subject to Rostechnadzor licence.
Tenex suggests REMIX could be the basis for a form of fuel leasing from a supplier to a utility, with repeated recycle between them.”…
Complete article in link below..
A long-scheduled repair and maintenance outage at Russia’s Balakovo 3 (a 950MWe VVER) ended on 31 March.
Extensive work was carried out to modernise the equipment to increase reliability and safety. Two steam generators were replaced, which will improve the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the reactor.
Balakovo 3 is testing Russia’s Remix (regenerated mixture) fuel, which reduces the consumption of natural uranium. Remix fuel is a combination of mixed-oxide (mox) fuel and fuel with a mix of fresh and recycled uranium.
In 2016, several fuel assemblies were loaded into the core of Balakovo 3 each containing six elements with Remix fuel and pilot operation is continuing.
“According to developers, the savings in natural uranium can be about 22%,” said Vladimir Dergachev, head of the nuclear safety and reliability department at Balakovo.
“The neutron spectrum of Remix fuel does not differ from the neutron spectrum of ordinary uranium fuel, which means it can be used in conventional reactors without making additional changes to their design and additional safety measures,” he added.
Remix fuel is a unique domestic development of Russia’s VG Khlopin Radium Institute.
Safety-wise, the new fuel elements do not differ from those based on uranium dioxide with a maximum input enrichment of 5%.
The strategic objective Remix fuel is to close the nuclear fuel cycle. In 2021, the test assemblies will be removed from the reactor and transferred to the holding pool for 1.5 years to reduce radioactivity. In 2023, they will be delivered to the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors in Dimitrovgrad for analysis and further research…